Ophthalmology

doi: 10.25005/2074-0581-2020-22-3-373-382
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE PEDIATRIC EYE INJURIES IN THE SUGHD REGION OF TAJIKISTAN

Kh.J. Karim-Zade1, N.A. Ochilzoda2,, Z.A. Dadоboev2

1Department of Ophthalmology, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University, Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan
2Eye Department, Regional Clinical Hospital of Sughd Region, Khujand, Republic of Tajikistan

Objective: To study epidemiology and clinical features of of eye injuries in children in Sughd Region of the Republic of Tajikistan from 1993 up to 2013.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 616 (622 eyes) children with eye injuries required in-patient treatment in the Eye Department of Regional Clinical Hospital of Sughd Region was conducted for 20 years from 1993 to 2013.

Results: For observable period in 616 children with eye injuries, who got in-patient treatment, the level of incidence was 6.6 per 100 000 children’s population of the region. Mean age was 7.7 (range from 1 to 15 years), male/female ratio was 2.8:1. Children aged 3-10 were most affected to injuries. Eye blunt trauma was diagnosed in 168 eyes (27%), open globe injuries in 429 (69%), eyelid injuries in 25 patients (4%). Visual acuity improvement (0.5-1.0) noted in 24.6%, moderate decrease of visual acuity (0.2-0.4) – in 12.9%, low vision (0.05-0.1) – in 7.9% and blindness (0-0.04) in 23% of cases. Factors, associated with unfavorable visual outcome were vitreous hemorrhage, hyphema, cataract and endophthalmitis.

Conclusions: According to the results of the study, pediatric eye injuries are important causes of monocular blindness and impaired vision. In spite of improving possibilities of healthcare and treatment, in our study, one-third of children suffer from blindness and impaired vision, as a result of injuries, which indicates the need to develop and implement preventive and treatment measures in order to achieve the most favorable results of the injury.

Keywords: Eye injury, children, Sughd Region, blindness, low vision.

Download file:


References
  1. Negrel A, Thylerfors B. The global impact of eye injuries. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 1998; 5(3):143-69. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1076/ opep.5.3.143.83647
  2. Rustamova NM. Mnogomernaya otsenka i prioritety profilaktiki invalidnosti vsledstvie oftal’mopatologii [Multivariate assessment and priorities for the prevention of disability due to ophthalmopathology]. Obshchestvennoe zdorov’e i zdravookhranenie. 2015;2:28-30.
  3. Alikova TT, Alikova ZR, Fidarova KK. Osobennosti rasprostranyonnosti oftal’mopatologii vo vzrosloy populyatsii Respubliki Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya [Features of the prevalence of ophthalmopathology in the adult population of the Republic of North Osetia-Alania]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2016;3:180.
  4. May DR, Kuhn FP, Morris RE, Witherspoon CD, Danis RP, Matthews GP, Mann L. The epidemiology of serious eye injuries from the United States Eye Injury Registry. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2000;238:153-7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00007884
  5. Abbot О, Shah P. The epidemiology and etiology of pediatric ocular trauma. Surv Ophthalmol. 2013;58:476-85. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. survophthal.2012.10.007
  6. Pizzarello LD. Ocular trauma: time for action. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1998;5:115-6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1076/opep.5.3.115.8366
  7. Rahi JS, Cumberland PM, Peckham CS. Visual function in working age adults: early life influences and associations with health and social outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1866-71. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ophtha.2009.03.007
  8. Shah A, Blackhall K, Ker K, Patel D. Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries. In: Shah A, ed. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2009:CD006527.
  9. Hoskin AK, Philip SS, Yardley A-ME, Mackey DA. Eye injury prevention for the pediatric population. Asia-Pacific J Ophthalmol. 2016;5:202-11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/APO.0000000000000193
  10. Kuhn F, Morris R, Witherspoon CD. Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT): terminology and classification of mechanical eye injuries. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2002;15(2):139-43. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/ s0896-1549(02)00004-4
  11. World report on vision. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2019. License: CC BY-NCSA 3.0 IGO.
  12. Sofi AR, Wani JS, Keng MQ. Profile of children with ocular trauma. JK Practitioner. 2012;17(1-3):44-50
  13. Min FCL, Quamaruddin F. A West Malaysian study of pediatric ocular trauma. Int Eye Sci. 2016;16:1212-5.
  14. Haavisto A-K, Sahraravand A, Holopainen JM, Leivo T. Paediatric eye injuries in Finland-Helsinki eye trauma study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95:392-9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13273
  15. Puodžiuvienė E, Jokūbauskienė G, Vieversytė M, Asselineau K. A five-year retrospective study of the epidemiological characteristics and visual outcomes of pediatric ocular trauma. BMC Ophthalmology. 2018;18:10. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-018-0676-7
  16. El-Sebaity DM, Soliman W, Soliman A, Fathalla AM. Pediatric eye injuries in Upper Egypt. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011;5:1417-23. Available from: https://doi. org/10.2147/OPHTH.S24679
  17. Yardley AME, Hoskin AK, Hanman K, Sanfilippo PG, Lam GC, Mackey DA. Paediatric ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalization in Western Australia. Clin Exp Optom. 2017;100:227-33. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1111/cxo.12486
  18. Sii F, Barry RJ, Abbott J, Blanch RJ, MacEwen CJ, Shah P. The UK Paediatric Ocular Trauma Study 2 (POTS2): demographics and mechanisms of injuries. Clin Ophthalmol. 2018;12:105-11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2147/ ophth.S155611
  19. Al-Mahdi H, Bener A, Hashim S. Clinical pattern of pediatric ocular trauma in fast developing country. International Emergency Nursing. 2011;19(4):186- 91. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2011.06.008
  20. Maurya RP, Singh VP, Yadav I, Singh MK, Mishra CP, Sen PR. Profile of pediatric ocular trauma at tertiary eye care centre in northern India. Indian J Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015;1(2):76-83.
  21. Hosseini H, Masoumpour M, Keshavarz-Fazl F, Razeghinejad MR, Salouti R, Nowroozzadeh MH. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of severe childhood ocular injuries in southern Iran. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2011;18:136-40. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-9233.80702
  22. Ilhan HD, Bilgin AB, Cetinkaya A, Unal M, Yucel I. Epidemiological and clinical features of paediatric open globe injuries in southwestern Turkey. Int J Ophthalmol. 2013;6:855-60. Available from: https://doi.org/0.3980/j.issn.2222- 3959.2013.06.20
  23. Barry RJ, Sii F, Bruynseels A, Abbot J, Blanch RJ, MacEwen CJ, Shah P. The UK Paediatric Ocular Trauma Study 3(POTS3): clinical features and initial management of injuries. Clin Ophthalmol. 2019;13:1165-72. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/ceo.12034
  24. Kadappu S, Silveira S, Martin F. Aetiology and outcome of open and closed globe eye injuries in children. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;41(5):427-34. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/ceo.12034
  25. Yildiz M, Kivanc SA, Akova-Budak B, Ozmen AT, Cevik SG. An important cause of blindness in children: open globe injuries. J Ophthalmol. 2016;2016:717351. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7173515

Authors informations:

Karim-Zade Khakima Jangovarovna
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Ophthalmology, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University
Researcher ID: AAO-7768-2020
Scopus ID: 14031720200
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3922-3829
SPIN: 1646-0538
Author ID: 1072708
E-mail: kh.karimzade@gmail.com

Ochilzoda Nasimdzhon Abdunozimovich
Ophthalmologist, Eye Department, Regional Clinical Hospital of Sughd Region
Researcher ID: AAR-2042-2020
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-6793-2660
SPIN: 3391-5933
E-mail: nasimjonochilzoda@gmail.com

Dadоboev Zokhirdzhon Azimovich
Ophthalmologist, Eye Department, Regional Clinical Hospital of Sughd Region
Researcher ID: AAQ-9654-2020
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5224-5817
SPIN: 7505-8624
E-mail: zohirjon89@gmail.com

Information about the source of support in the form of grants, equipment, and drugs

The work was carried out according to the plan of scientific research works of Avicenna Tajik State Medical University (state registration number – 0110РК033). The authors did not receive financial support from manufacturers of medicines and medical equipment

Conflict of interest: No conflict

Address for correspondence:

Karim-Zade Khakima Jangovarovna
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Ophthalmology, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University

734003, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki Ave., 139

Tel.: +992 (934) 458236

E-mail: kh.karimzade@gmail.com

Materials on the topic: