Obstetrics and Gynecology

doi: 10.25005/2074-0581-2020-22-1-22-27
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS AND HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE PLACENTA OF WOMEN, WHO GAVE BIRTH TO CHILDREN WITH ANENCEPHALY

V.Yu. Melnikova, M.F. Dodkhoeva

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University, Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan

Objective: To study immunohystochemical markers and features of histological and morphological changes in the placenta of women who have given birth to children with anencephaly.

Methods: 15 women with anencephaly in the fetus (the main group) and 20 women, who gave birth to practically healthy children (control group), were examined. All women were tested for tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), morphological examination of placenta and levels of apoptosis, definition expression Nkx-2.2 in vascular endothelial cells of the villous chorion of the placenta of women in norm, and with congenital malformation (CM) of the central nervous system (CNS), in particular – anencephaly in the fetus.

Results: A feature of the histochemical characteristics of placenta in women who have given birth to children with anencephaly is the predominance of chronic compensated deficiency with manifestations of dyscirculatory disorders. Statistically significant reduction of Nkx-2.2 expression levels in the vascular endothelial cells of the villous chorion placenta of women who gave birth to children with anencephaly, confirms the role of this factor in the differentiation of nervous structures. An inverse correlation between the level of Nkx-2.2 expression in the placenta and the level of AFP in the blood serum of pregnant women at the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy determines the level of AFP as the most significant marker of the development of anencephaly in the fetus.

Conclusions: Based on the conducted studies it is possible to assume the participation of the placenta in the formation of abnormalities of the CNS of fetuses and newborns. Consequently, properly organized antenatal surveillance with mandatory definition of AFP level at 14 weeks of pregnancy will improve the quality of care for women at risk development of CM of the CNS of the fetus, in particular – anencephaly

Keywords: Immunohistochemical markers, diagnostics of anencephaly, expression of Nkx-2.2 in the placenta, degree of apoptosis in the placenta.

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Authors informations:

Melnikova Veronika Yuryevna Assistant of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-9514-5100
Author ID: 1029649
SPIN: 5917-8251
E-mail: veronika.melnikova.86@mail.ru

Dodkhoeva Munavvara Fayzulloevna Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Full Professor, Professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-9373-4318
Author ID: 313026
SPIN: 9749-6174
E-mail: dodkho2008@mail.ru

Address for correspondence:

Melnikova Veronika Yuryevna
Assistant of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University

734003, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki Ave., 139

Tel.: +992 (935) 180220

E-mail: veronika.melnikova.86@mail.ru

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