Literature Reviews

doi: 10.25005/2074-0581-2017-19-4-537-543

M.F. Dodkhoeva, F.Z. Olimova

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Objective: Based on the analysis of world literature, found that preeclampsia, as the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, is currently one of the unresolved obstetric questions in the world. The negative impact of preeclampsia on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes affect the quality of life not only of the mother but also of the future descendants, which is a public health problem and which must be addressed especially to developing countries.

Keywords: Preeclampsia, pregnancy, prevention.

Download file:

  1. Roberts JM, August AP, Bakris G, Barton JR, Bernstein IM, Druzin M, et al. Hypertension, pregnancy-induced – practice guideline. Washington, USA: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2013. 89 p.
  2. Radzinskiy VE, Fuks VE (red.) Akusherstvo [Obstetrics]. Moscow, RF: GEOTARMedia; 2016. 608 p.
  3. Sibai BM. Maternal and uteroplacental hemodynamics for the classification and prediction of preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2008;52:805-6. Available from:
  4. Duley L. The global impact of pre-eclampsia. Semin Perinatol. 2009; 33(3):130- 7. Available from:
  5. Ghulmiyyah L, Sibai B. Maternal mortality from preeclampsia/eclampsia. Semin Perinatol. 2012;36(1):56–9. Available from: https://dx.doi. org/10.1053/j.semperi.2011.09.011.
  6. World Health Organization. The world health report: 2005: make every mother and child count. Geneva: WHO; 2005. Available at: http://www.who. int/whr/2005/whr 2005_en.pdf.
  7. Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A, Tunçalp Ö, Moller AB, Daniels J, et al. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2014; 2(6):323–33. Available from: 109X(14)70227.
  8. Uzakova UD, Abdurakhmanov FM, Abdurakhmanova FM, Mukhamadieva SM, Kamilova MYo, Dodkhoeva MF, i dr. Natsional’nye standarty po obespecheniyu bezopasnogo materinstva: Vedenie gipertenzivnykh narusheniy vo vremya beremennosti [National standards for safe motherhood: Management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy]. Dushanbe, RT, 2010. 150 p.
  9. Kamilova MYa, Davlyatova GK, Rakhmatulloeva DM, Mulkamonova LN, Ishan- Khodjaeva FR. Rannie i pozdnie preeklampsii: techenie beremennosti, rodov i perinatal’nye iskhody [Early and late preeclampsia: the course of pregnancy, childbirth and perinatal outcomes]. Vestnik Avitsenny [Avicenna Bulletin]. 2016;4:34-7.
  10. Adamyan LV, Artymuk NV, Bashmakova NV, Belokrinnitskaya TE, Belomestnov SR, Bratishchev IV, i dr. Gipertenzivnye rasstroystva vo vremya beremennosti, v rodakh i poslerodovom periode. Preeklampsia. Eklampsia. Klinicheskie rekomendatsii [Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium. Preeclampsia. Eclampsia]. Moscow, RF: Ministerstvo zdravookhraneniya RF, 2016. 72 p.
  11. Tranquilli AL, Landi B, Giannubilo SR, Sibai BM. Preeclampsia: No longer solely a pregnancy disease. Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Women’s Cardiovascular Health. 2012;2(4):350-7. Available from: https://
  12. Ophir E, Dourleshter G, Hirsh Y, Fait V, German L, Bornstein J. Newborns of pre-eclamptic women: a biochemical difference present in utero. AOGS. 2006; 85(10):1172-8. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1080/00016340600697272.
  13. Kattah G, Asad R, Scantlebury DC, Bailey KR, Wiste HJ, Hunt SC et al. Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for microalbuminuria later in life. JCN. 2013;15(9):617-23. Available from:
  14. Vikse BE, Irgens LM, Leivestad T, Skjærven R, Iversen BM. Preeclampsia and the risk of end- stage renal disease. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(8):800-9. Available from:
  15. Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams DJ. Preeclampsia and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in later life: Systematic review and metaanalysis. BMJ. 2007;335:1-12. Available from: bmj.39335.385301.
  16. Mbah AK, Alio AP, Marty PJ, Bruder K, Whiteman VE, Salihu HM. Pre-eclampsia in the first pregnancy and subsequent risk of stillbirth in black and white gravidas. European Journal of Obststrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2010;149(2):165-9. Available from: ejogrb.2009.12.035.
  17. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard MZ, Chou D, Moller AB, Garcia CV, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: A systematic analysis and implications. Lancet. 2012;379(9832):2162-72. Available from:
  18. Wu CS, Nohr EA, Bech BH, Vestergaard M, Catov JM, Olsen J. Health of children born to mothers who had preeclampsia: a population-based cohort study. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2009;201(3):269.e1– 269.e10. Available from:
  19. Kiondo P, Tumwesigye NM, Wandabwa J, Wamuyu-Maina G, Bimenya GS, Okong P. Adverse neonatal outcomes in women with pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional study. Pan Afr Med J. 2014;17(1):7. Available from: supp.2014.17.1.3014.
  20. Harskamp RE, Zeeman GG. Preeclampsia: at risk for remote cardiovascular disease. Am J Med Sci. 2007;334(4):291-5. Available from: http://dx.doi. org/10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3180a6f094.
  21. Goldenberg RL, McClure EM, MacGuire ER, Kamath BD, Jobe AH. Lessons for lowincome regions following the reduction in hypertension-related maternal mortality in high-income countries. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2011;113(2):91-5. Available from:
  22. Rustveld LO, Kelsey SF, Sharma R. Association between maternal infections and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12(2):22-42. Available from: s10995-007-0224-1.
  23. Lynn MM, Swamy GK, Edwards S, Maxson P, Gelfand A, James S. Disparities in maternal hypertension and pregnancy outcomes: Evidence from North Carolina, 1994-2003. Public Health Report. 2010;125(4):579-87. Available from:
  24. Bateman BT, Shaw KM, Kuklina EV, Callaghan WM, Seely EW, Hernández- Díaz S. Hypertension in women of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES 1999-2008. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e36171. Available from: https://
  25. Nakimuli A, Elliott AM, Kaleebu P, Moffett A, Mirembe F. Hypertension persisting after preeclampsia: A prospective cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e85273. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085273.
  26. Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Versari D, Salvetti A. Endothelium, aging, and hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2006;8(1):84-9.
  27. Wolde Z, Segni H, Woldie M. Hypertension disorders of pregnancy in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. J Health Sci. 2011;21(3):147-53.
  28. Farid AS, Farid MKh. Klinicheskie osobennosti i faktory riska razvitiya preeklampsii i eklampsii u zhenshchin v usloviyakh Afganistana [Clinical features and risk factors for the development of preeclampsia and eclampsia in women in Afghanistan]. Vestnik Avitsenny [Avicenna Bulletin]. 2014;4:73-6.
  29. Mbouemboue OP, Cellou D, Tamanji MT, Blakga C, Kamdje AHN, Ngoufack JO, et al. A study on factors related to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in Ngaoundere Adamawa Region, Cameroon. Clinical Medicine Research. 2016;5(2):6-12. Available from: cmr.20160502.11.
  30. Middendorp D, Asbroek A, Bio FY, Edusei A, Meijjer L, Newton S, et al. Rural and urban differences in blood pressure and pregnancy-induced hypertension among pregnant women in Ghana. Globalization and Health. 2013; 59(9):1-8. Available from:
  31. Bdolah Y, Lam C, Rajakumar A, Shivalingappa V, Mutter W, Sachs BP, et al. Twin pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia: bigger placenta or relative ischemia? American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2008;198(4):428. e1–428.e6. Available from:
  32. Ye C, Ruan Y, Zou L, Li G, Li C, Chen Y, et al. The 2011 survey on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in China: Prevalence, risk factors, complications, pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100180. Available from:
  33. Taguchi T, Ishii K, Hayashi S, AMabuchi, Murata M, Mitsuda N. Clinical features and prenatal risk factors for hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancies. J Obstet Gynecol Research. 2014;40(6):1584-91. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1111/jog.12408.
  34. Yanyan N, Weiwei C. Clinical characteristics of early-onset pre-eclampsia in singleton versus multiple pregnancies. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2016;132(3):325-8. Available from: ijgo.2015.07.029.
  35. Mbah AK, Kornosky JL, Kristensen S, August EM, Alio AP, Marty PJ, еt al. Superobesity and risk for early and latepre-eclampsia. BJOG. 2010;117(8):997- 1004. Available from:
  36. Emmanuelle P, Samuel P, McElrath TF, Dominick P, Newton A, Kee-Hak L. Clinical risk factors for preeclampsia in the 21st century. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2014;124(4):763-70. Available from: AOG.0000000000000451.
  37. Syngelaki A, Bredaki FE, Vaikousi E, Maiz N, Nicolaides KH. Body mass index at 11-13 weeks gestation and pregnancy complications. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2011;30(4):250-65. Available from:
  38. Chasan-Taber L, Silveira M, Waring ME, Pekow P, Braun B, Manson JE, et al. Gestational weight gain, body mass index, and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2016;20(9):1804-13. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1007/s10995-016-1983-3.
  39. Assis TR, Viana FP, Rassi S. Study on the major maternal risk factors in hypertensive syndromes. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008;91(1):11-7. Available from:
  40. Lecarpentier E, Tsatsaris V, Goffinet F, Cabrol D, Sibai B, Haddad B. Risk factors of superimposed preeclampsia in women with essential chronic hypertension treated before pregnancy. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e62140.
  41. Skjærven R, Wilcox AJ, Lie RT. The interval between pregnancies and the risk of preeclampsia. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:33-8. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1056/NEJMoa011379.
  42. Aylamazyan EK, Kulakov VI, Radzinskiy VE, Savelyeva GM (red.). Akusherstvo. Natsional’noe rukovodstvo [Obstetrics. National guidelines]. Moscow, RF: GEOTAR-Media; 2009. 290 p.
  43. Jeffrey S, Gilbert MJ, Ryan BB, LaMarca MS, Sydney RM, Joey PG. Pathophysiology of hypertension during preeclampsia: linking placental ischemia with endothelial dysfunction. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2008;294(2):541-50. Available from:
  44. Young BC, Levine RJ, Karumanchi SA. Pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. 2010;5:173-92. Available from:
  45. Powe CE, Levine RJ, Karumanchi SA. Preeclampsia, a disease of the maternal endothelium: The role of antiangiogenic factors and implications for later cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2011;123:2856-69. Available from:
  46. Yuluğ E, Yenilmez E, Unsal MA, Aydin S, Tekelioglu Y, Arvas H. Apoptotic and morphological features of the umbilical artery endothelium in mild and severe preeclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(9):1038-45. Available from:
  47. Myers E, Kenny LC, McCowan LME, Chan EHY, Dekker GA, et al. Angiogenic factors combined with clinical risk factors to predict preterm preeclampsia in nulliparous women: a predictive test accuracy study. BJOG. 2013;120(10):1215-23. Available from: 0528.12195.
  48. Schoofs K, Grittner U, Engels T, Pape J, Denk B,Henrich W, et al. The importance of repeated measurements of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for the prediction of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 2014;42(1):61-8. Available from: 2013-0074.
  49. Stepan H, Herraiz I, Schlembach D, Verlohren S, Brennecke S, Chantraine F, et al. Implementation of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia insingleton pregnancy: implications for clinical practice. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015;45(3):241-6. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1002/uog.14799.
  50. Roberge S, Nicolaides KH, Demers S, Villa P, Bujold E. Prevention of perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcomeusing low-dose aspirin: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41(5):491-9. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1002/uog.12421.
  51. Roberge S, Nicolaides K, Demers S, Hyett J, Chaillet N, Bujold E. The role of aspirin dose on the prevention of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction: systematic review and meta-analysis. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 2017;216(2):110-20. Available from: http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.ajog.2016.09.076.
  52. Briceño-Pérez C. Briceño-Sanabria L. Prediction and prevention of preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2009;28(2):138-55. Available from:
  53. Omotayo MO, Dickin KL, O’Brien KO, Neufeld LM, De Regil LM, Stoltzfu RJ. Calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia: Translating guidelines into practice in low-income countries. Advances in Nutrition. 2016;7(2):275- 8. Available from:

Authors informations:

Dodkhoeva Munavvara Faizulloevna, Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Full Professor, Professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna TSMU

Olimova Farangis Zafarovna, Post-graduate Student of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna TSMU

Address for correspondence:

Dodkhoeva Munavvara Faizulloevna

Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Full Professor, Professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology № 1, Avicenna TSMU

734003, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki Ave., 139

Tel.: (+992) 918 612606